An Automatic Non-Destructive External and Internal Quality Evaluation of Mango Fruits based on Color and X-ray Imaging using Computer Vision Techniques
Keywords:Quality Assessment, Machine Learning, Multilayer Perceptron, Deep Learning, Convolutional Neural Network
Quality evaluation of food products, agricultural produce to be specific, has gained momentum from past few decades due to the increased awareness among consumers across the world. This has resulted in the increased emphasis on the development and use of quality assessment techniques in food industry. Moreover, there is a need to automate the quality monitoring of agricultural produce like fruits and vegetables which is otherwise done manually in developing countries hence labor intensive, time consuming and subjective in nature. This paper presents an empirical analysis to build a rapid, robust, real-time, non-destructive computer vision based quality assessment model for mango fruits. The work employs the automatic disease classification of mango fruits based on machine and deep learning models. Firstly, the dataset of colored mango fruits images with 2279 images falling into three classes and another dataset of soft X-ray images of mango fruits with 572 images belonging to two quality classes are developed for detecting external and internal defects, respectively. The multilayer perceptron neural network (MLP NN) with two hidden layers, which may be considered as the starting point for deep learning technique, is proposed as machine learning model to classify the color images of mango fruits into one of three external quality classes with 95.1% accuracy and also to classify the soft X-ray images into two internal quality classes with 97.5% accuracy. In order to step out of feature engineering, actual deep learning convolutional neural network (CNN) models, a customized CNN model and pre-trained CNN models, VGGNet (VGG16) and DenseNet121 were also explored for mango disease classification. The maximum validation accuracy of custom CNN was found to be with 91.52% and 98.7% for color and augmented X-ray images, respectively. The classification accuracy of pre-trained models were found to be reasonably good for the color images but exhibited high variability in results and made it difficult to draw a general conclusion for the proposed datasets. However, the proposed MLP NN model based on few basic intensity and geometric features and also the proposed customized CNN model were found to be the best models and they outperform the state of the art reported in the literature.
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Inteligencia Artificial (Ed. IBERAMIA)
ISSN: 1988-3064 (on line).
(C) IBERAMIA & The Authors